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Ambrus, G. G., Windel, F., Burton, A. M., & Kovács, G. (2017). Causal evidence of the involvement of the right occipital face area in face-identity acquisition. NeuroImage. PDF Link

Young, A. W., & Burton, A. M., (2017). Recognizing Faces. Current Directions In Psychological Science. 


Andrews, T. J., Baseler, H., Jenkins, R., Burton, A. M., & Young, A. W. (2016). Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition and neural representation of facial identity. Cortex, 83, 280-291. PDF Link

Baseler, H. A., Young, A. W., Jenkins, R., Burton, A. M., & Andrews, T. J. (2016). Face-Selective Regions Show Invariance To Linear, But Not To Non-Linear, Changes In Facial Images. Neuropsychologia, 93, 76-84. PDF Link

McCaffery, J. M., & A. Mike Burton (2016). Passport Checks: Interactions Between Matching Faces and Biographical Details. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 6, 925-933. PDF Link 

Kramer, R. S. S., Young, A. W., Day, M. G., & Burton, A. M. (2016). Robust social categorization emerges from learning the identities of very few faces. Psychological Review.

Kramer, R. S. S., Jenkins, R., Young, A. W., & Burton, A. M. (2016). Natural variability is essential to learning new faces. Visual Cognition, 1-7. PDF Link

Andrews, S., Burton, A. M., Schweinberger, S., Wiese, H. (2016). Event-related potentials reveal the development of stable face representations from natural variability. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. PDF Link

Ritchie, K. L., & Burton, A. M. (2016). Learning faces from variability. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. PDF Link
White, D., Rivolta, D., Burton, A. M., Al-Janabi, S., & Palermo, R. (2016). Face matching impairment in developmental prosopagnosia. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. PDF Link

Robertson, D. J., & A. Mike Burton. (2016). Unfamiliar face recognition: Security, surveillance and smartphones. Journal of the U.S. Homeland Defense and Security Information Analysis Center, 3, 1, 14-21. PDF Link

Robertson, D. J., Noyes, E., Dowsett, A., Jenkins, R., & A. Mike Burton. (2016). Face Recognition by Metropolitan Police Super-recognisers. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0150036 PDF Link

Burton, A. M., Kramer, R. S. S., Ritchie, K. L., & Jenkins, R. (2016). Identity from variation: representations of faces derived from multiple instances. Cognitive Science, 40, 202-223. PDF Link


Armann, R. G. M., Jenkins, R., & Burton, A. M. (2015). A Familiarity Disadvantage for Remembering Specific Images of Faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000174  PDF Link

Ritchie, K. L., Smith, F. G, Jenkins, R., Bindemann, M., White, D. & Burton, A. M. (2015). Viewers base estimates of face matching accuracy on their own familiarity: Explaining the photo-ID paradox. Cognition, 141, 161-169PDF Link

Dowsett, A.J., Sandford, A., & Burton, A.M. (2015). Face learning with multiple images leads to fast acquisition of familiarity for specific individuals. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 1, 1-10. PDF Link

Robertson, D. J., Kramer, R. S. S., & Burton, A. M. (2015). Face averages enhance user recognition for smartphone security. PLoS ONE, 10(3): e0119460. PDF Link

Burton, A. M., Schweinberger, S., Jenkins, R., & Kaufmann, J. (2015). Arguments against a ‘configural processing' account of familiar face recognition. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10, 4, 482-496. PDF Link

Andrews, S., Jenkins, R.,  Cursiter, H., & Burton, A. M. (2015). Telling faces together: Learning new faces through exposure to multiple instances. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 10, 2041-2050PDF Link

Robertson, D. J., Middleton, R., & Burton, A. M. (2015). From policing to passport control. The limitations of photo ID. Keesing: The Journal of Documents and Identity, 46, 3-8. PDF Link

Kramer, R. S. S., Ritchie, K. L., & Burton, A. M. (2015). Viewers extract the mean from images of the same person. A route to face learning. Journal of Vision 15(4):1, 1-9PDF Link

Dowsett, A.J., & Burton, A.M. (2015). Unfamiliar face matching: Pairs out-perform individuals and provide a route to training. British Journal of Psychology, 106, 3, 433-445PDF Link


White, D., Kemp, R.I., Jenkins, R., Matheson, M., & Burton, A.M. (2014). Passport Officers' Errors in Face Matching. PLoS ONE, 9(8): e103510. PDF Link

Sandford, A., & Burton, A. M. (2014). Tolerance for distorted faces: Challenges to a configural processing account of familiar face recognition. Cognition, 132, 3, 262-268. PDF Link

White, D., Burton, A.M., Jenkins, R. & Kemp, R. (2014). Redesigning photo-ID to improve unfamiliar face matching performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20, 2, 166-173. PDF Link

White, D., Kemp, R. I., Jenkins, R., & Burton, A. M. (2014). Feedback training for facial image comparison. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 21, 1, 100-106. PDF Link 


White, D., Burton, A. M., Kemp, R. I., & Jenkins, R. (2013). Crowd Effects in Unfamiliar Face Matching. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 769-777. PDF Link

Megreya, A. M., Sandford, A., & Burton, A. M. (2013). Matching Face Images Take on the Same Day or Months Apart: the Limitations of Photo ID. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 700-706. PDF Link

Burton, A. M. (2013). Why has research in face recognition progressed so slowly? The importance of variability. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology66, 8,1467-1485. PDF Link

Attwood, A. S., Penton-Voak, I. S., Burton, A. M., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Acute Anxiety Impairs Accuracy in Identifying Photographed Faces. Psychological  Science24, 8, 1591–1594. PDF Link

Neumann, M. F., Schweinberger, S. R., & Burton, A. M. (2013). Viewers extract mean and individual identity from sets of famous faces. Cognition, 128, 56–63. PDF Link


Nakabayashi, K.Burton, A.M., Brandimonte, M. & Lloyd-Jones, T.J. (2012). Dissociating positive and negative influences  of verbal processing on the recognition of pictures of faces andobjects.Journal  of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,  & Cognition, 38, 376-390. PDF Link

Megreya, A. M., Bindemann, M., Havard, C., & Burton, A. M. (2012). Identity-Lineup Location Influences Target Selection: Evidence from Eye Movements. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology,  27, 2, 167–178. PDF Link


Jenkins, R., White, D., van Montfort, X. & Burton, A.M. (2011). Variability in photos of the same face. Cognition, 121, 313-323. PDF Link

Burton, A.M. & Jenkins, R. (2011). Unfamiliar face perception. In A.J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M.H. Johnson & J. Haxby  (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Face Perception. pp 287-306, Oxford University Press.

Wilson, C.E., Palermo, R., Burton, A.M. & Brock, J. (2011). Recognition of own- and other-race faces in autism spectrum disorders. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1939-1954PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R. & Burton, A.M. (2011). Person Perception 25 years after Bruce and Young (1986): An  Introduction. (Editorial for  Special Issue). British Journal of Psychology, 102, 695-703. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., Jenkins, R. & Schweinberger, S.R. (2011). Mental representations of familiar faces. British Journal of Psychology: Special Issue to celebrate 25 years of the Bruce and Young model, 102, 943-958. PDF Link

Megreya, A.M., White, D. & Burton, A.M. (2011). The other-race effect does not rely on memory: evidence from a matching task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1473-1483. PDF Link

Jenkins, R. & Burton, A.M. (2011). Stable face representations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B, 366, 1671- 1683. PDF Link


Wilson, C.E., Palermo, R., Brock, J. & Burton, A.M. (2010). 
Learning new faces in typically developing children and children  on the autistic spectrum. 
Perception, 39, 1645-1658. PDF Link

Bindemann, M., Scheepers, C., Ferguson, H.J., & Burton, A.M. (2010). Face, body and centre of gravity mediate person detection in natural scenes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1477-1485. PDF Link

Wilson, C.E., Freeman, P., Brock, J., Burton, A.M. & Palermo, R. (2010). Facial Identity Recognition in the Broader Autism Phenotype. PLoS One, 5(9), Article e12876. PDF Link

Edmond, G., Kemp, R., Porter, G., Hamer, D., Burton, M., Biber, K. & San Roque, M. (2010). Atkins v The Emperor: The cautious use of unreliable expert opinion. The International Journal of Evidence and Proof, 14, 146-166. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., White, D., & McNeill, A. (2010). The Glasgow Face Matching Test. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 286 - 291PDF Link


Bindemann, M. & Burton, A.M. (2009). The role of color in human face detection. Cognitive Science, 33, 1144-1156. PDF Link

Burton, A.M. & Bindemann, M. (2009). The role of view in human face detection. Vision Research, 49, 2026-2036. PDF Link

Kaufmann, J.M., Schweinberger, S.R. & Burton, A.M. (2009). N250 ERP correlates of the acquisition of face representations across different images. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 21, 625-641. PDF Link 

Bindemann, M., Scheepers, C. & Burton, A.M. (2009). Viewpoint and centre of gravity affect eyemovements to human faces. Journal of  Vision, 9(2):7, 1-16. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., Bindemann, M., Langton, S.R.H., Schweinberger, S.R., & Jenkins, R. (2009). Gaze perception requires focused attention: evidence from an interference task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 35,108-118. PDF Link  


Megreya, A.M. & Burton, A.M. (2008). Matching faces to photographs: Poor performance in eyewitness memory (without the memory). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 14, 364-372.  PDF Link

Bindemann, M. & Burton, A.M. (2008). Attention to upside-down faces: An exception to the inversion effect. Vision Research, 48, 2555- 2561. PDF Link

Bindemann, M., Burton, A.M., & Langton, S.R.H. (2008). How do eye-gaze and facial expression interact? Visual Cognition, 16, 708- 733PDF Link

Bindemann, M., Burton, A.M., Leuthold, H., & Schweinberger, S.R. (2008). Event-related potentials of face recognition: Geometric distortions and the N250r brain response to stimulus repetitions. Psychophysiology, 45, 535-544 PDF Link

Baird, L.M. & Burton, A.M. (2008). The bilateral advantage for famous faces: Interhemispheric communication or competition? Neuropsychologia, 46, 1581-1587. PDF Link

Langton, S.R.H., Law, A.S., Burton, A.M. & Schweinberger, S.R. (2008). Attention capture by faces. Cognition, 107, 330- 342. PDF Link

Jenkins, R. & Burton, A.M. (2008). 100% accuracy in automatic face recognition. Science, 319, 435. PDF Link

Nakabayashi, K. & Burton, A.M. (2008). The role of verbal processing at different stages of recognition memory for faces. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20, 478-496. PDF Link

Jenkins, R. & Burton, A.M. (2008) Limitations in facial identification, Justice of the Peace, 172, 4-6.


Schweinberger, S.R., Kaufmann, J.M., Moratti, S., Keil, A., & Burton, A.M. (2007). Brain responses to repetitions of human and animal faces, inverted faces, and objects — An MEG study. Brain Research, 1184, 226-233PDF Link

Megreya, A.M. & Burton, A.M. (2007). Hits and false positives in face matching: A familiarity-based dissociation. Perception  and Psychophysics, 69, 1175-1184. PDF Link

Neumann, M.F., Schweinberger, S.R., Wiese, H., & Burton, A.M. (2007). Event-related potential correlates of repetition priming for ignored faces. Neuroreport, 18, 1305-1309. 

Bindemann, M., Burton, A.M., Langton, S.R.H., Schweinberger, S.R. & Doherty, M.J. (2007). The control of attention to faces. Journal of Vision, 7(10):15, 1-8. PDF Link

Bindemann, M., Jenkins, R. & Burton, A.M. (2007). A bottleneck in face identification: repetition priming from flanker images. Experimental Psychology, 54, 192–201. PDF Link 

Kleinberg, K.F., Vanezis, P. & Burton, A.M. (2007). Failure of anthropometry as a facial identification technique using high- quality photographs. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52(4), 779-783. PDF Link


Calderwood, L. & Burton, A.M. (2006). Children and adults recall the names of highly familiar faces faster than semantic information. British Journal of Psychology, 97, 441-454. PDF Link

Megreya, A.M. & Burton, A.M. (2006). Unfamiliar faces are not faces: Evidence from a matching task. Memory & Cognition, 34, 865- 876. PDF Link

Megreya, A.M. & Burton, A.M. (2006). Recognising faces seen alone or with others: When two heads are worse than one. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20, 957-972. PDF Link

Martens, U., Schweinberger, S.R., Kiefer, M. & Burton, A.M. (2006). Masked and unmasked electrophysiological repetition effects of famous faces. Brain Research, 1109, 146-157. PDF Link

Riedel, B. & Burton, A.M. (2006). Auditory sequence learning: differential sensitivity to task relevant and task irrelevant sequences. Psychological Research, 70, 337-344. PDF Link

Jenkins, R., Burton, A.M., & White, D. (2006) Face recognition from unconstrained images: Progress with prototypes. Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Conference on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp 25-30. PDF Link


Bindemann, M., Burton, A.M, Hooge, I.T.C., Jenkins, R. & de Haan, E.H.F. (2005). Faces retain attention. Psychonomic Bulletin &  Review, 12, 1048-1053. PDF Link

Bindemann, M., Burton, A.M. & Jenkins, R. (2005). Capacity limits for face processing. Cognition, 98, 177-197. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., Jenkins, R., Hancock, P.J.B., & White, D. (2005).  Robust representations for face recognition: The power of averages. Cognitive Psychology, 51, 256-284. PDF Link

Brédart, S., Brennen, T., Delchambre, M., McNeill, A., & Burton, A.M. (2005). Naming very familiar people: When  retrieving names is faster than retrieving semantic biographical information. British Journal of Psychology, 96, 205-214. PDF Link 


Bonner, L. & Burton, A.M. (2004). 7-11-year-old children show an advantage for matching and recognizing the internal features of familiar faces: Evidence against a developmental shift. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A, 1019 1029. PDF Link

Burton, A.M. & Bonner, L. (2004). Familiarity influences judgements of sex: The case of voice recognition. Perception, 33, 747-752. PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R., Huddy, V., Burton, A.M. (2004). N250r: a face-selective brain response to stimulus repetitions. Neuroreport, 15, 1501-1505. PDF Link


Bonner, L., Burton, A.M., Jenkins, R., McNeill, A. & Bruce, V. (2003). Meet The Simpsons: Top-down effects in face learning. Perception, 32, 1159-1168. PDF Link

Huddy, V., Schweinberger, S.R., Jentzsch, I. & Burton, A.M. (2003). Matching faces for semantic information and names: An event-related brain potentials study. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 314-326. PDF Link

Kelly, S.W., Burton, A.M., Riedel, B., & Lynch, E. (2003). Sequence learning by action and observation: Evidence for separatemechanisms. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 355-372. PDF Link

McNeill, A., Burton, A.M. & Ellis, A.W. (2003). When sex isn't special: Priming onto a sex decision. Visual Cognition, 10, 641- 650. PDF Link

Bonner, L., Burton, A.M. & Bruce, V. (2003). Getting to know you: How we learn new faces. Visual Cognition, 10, 527 -536. PDF Link 

Liu, C.H., Seetzen, H., Burton, A.M., & Chaudhuri, A. (2003). Face recognition is robust with incongruent image resolution: Relationship to security video images. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 33-41. PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R. & Burton, A.M. (2003). Covert recognition and the neural system for face processing. Cortex, 39, 930. PDF Link 


Jenkins, R., Burton, A.M. & Ellis, A.W. (2002).
 Long-term effects of covert face recognition. 
Cognition, 86, B43-B52. PDF Link

McNeill, A. & Burton, A.M. (2002). The locus of semantic priming effects in person recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 1141-1156. PDF Link

Huddy, V. & Burton, A.M. (2002). Generate and test: An alternative route to knowledge elicitation in an implicit learning task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 1093-1107. PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R., Pickering, E.C., Jentzsch, I., Burton, A.M., & Kaufmann, J.M. (2002). Event-related brain potential evidence for a response of inferior temporal cortex to familiar face repetitions. Cognitive Brain Research, 14, 398-409.  PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R., Pickering, E.C., Burton, A.M., & Kaufmann, J.M. (2002). Human brain potential correlates of repetition priming in face and name recognition. Neuropsychologia, 40, 2057-2073. PDF Link

Bruce, V. & Burton, M. (2002).  Learning new faces. In M. Fahle & T. Poggio (Eds.) Perceptual Learning. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 317- 334. PDF Link


Bruce, V., Henderson, Z., Newman, C. & Burton, A.M. (2001). Matching identities of familiar and unfamiliar faces caught on CCTV images. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7, 207-218. PDF Link

Henderson, Z., Bruce, V. & Burton, A.M. (2001). Matching the faces of robbers captured on video. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 445-464. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., Miller, P., Bruce, V., Hancock, P.J.B. & Henderson, Z. (2001).  Human and automatic face recognition: a comparison across image formats.  Vision Research, 41, 3185-3195. PDF Link

Carson, D.R. & Burton, A.M. (2001). Semantic priming of person recognition: Categorical priming may be a weaker form of the associative priming effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1155-1179. PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R., Burton, A.M. & Kelly, S.W. (2001).  Priming the access to names of famous faces. British Journal of Psychology, 92, 303-317. PDF Link

Calder, A.J., Burton, A.M., Miller, P., Young, A.W. & Akamatsu, S. (2001).  A principal component analysis of facial expressions. Vision Research, 41, 1179-1208. PDF Link

Kelly, S.W., Burton, A.M., Kato, T. & Akamatsu, S. (2001). Incidental learning of real world regularities Psychological Science, 12, 86-89PDF Link

Kelly, S.W. & Burton, A.M. (2001). Learning complex sequences: No role for observation? Psychological Research, 65, 15 23PDF Link

Morrison, D.J., Bruce, V. & Burton, A.M. (2001). Understanding provoked overt recognition in prosopagnosia. Visual Cognition, 8, 47- 65. PDF Link


Hancock, P.J.B., Bruce, V. & Burton, A.M. (2000). Recognition of unfamiliar faces. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4(9), 330-337. PDF Link

Morrison, D.J., Bruce, V. & Burton, A.M. (2000). Covert face recognition in neurologically intact participants. Psychological Research, 63,83-94. PDF Link

Carson, D.R., Burton, A.M. & Bruce, V. (2000). Putting names to faces: A review and tests of the models. Consciousness and Pragmatics. 8, 9-62. PDF Link

Bruce, V., Carson D., Burton, A.M. & Ellis, A.W. (2000). Perceptual priming is not a necessary consequence of semantic classification of pictures. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A, 239-323. PDF Link

Burton, A. M. (2000).  The many ways to distribute distributed representations.  Commentary (p.472-473) on M. Page, Connectionist modelling in psychology: A localist manifesto. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23,  443-512.


Bruce, V., Henderson, Z., Greenwood, K., Hancock, P., Burton, A.M. & Miller, P. (1999). Verification of face identities from images captured on video. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5, 339-360. PDF Link

Schweinberger, S.R., Burton, A.M. & Kelly, S.W. (1999). Asymmetric dependencies in perceiving identity and emotion: expermients with morphed faces. Perception and Psychophysics, 61, 1102-1115. PDF Link

Liu, C.H., Collin, C.A., Burton, A.M. & Chaudhuri, A. (1999). Effect of lighting direction on recognition of untextured faces in photographic positive and negative. Vision Research, 39, 4003-4009. PDF Link

Burton, A.M, Wilson, S., Cowan, M & Bruce, V. (1999). Face recognition in poor quality video: evidence from security surveillance. Psychological Science, 10, 243-248. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., Bruce, V. & Hancock, P.J.B. (1999). From pixels to people: a model of familiar face recognition. Cognitive Science, 23, 1-31. PDF Link

Burton, A.M. & Young, A.W. (1999). Simulation and explanation: some harmony and some discord. Cognitive Neuropsychology,16, 16, 73-79.  (Response to O'Reilly & Farah's comments on Young & Burton, above). PDF Link

Young, A.W. & Burton, A.M. (1999). Simulating face recognition: implications for modelling cognition. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 16, 1-  48. PDF Link


Hancock, P.J.B., Bruce, V. & Burton, A.M. (1998). A comparison of two computer-based face identification systems with human perceptions of faces. Vision Research, 38, 2277-2288. PDF Link

Bruce, V., Carson, D., Burton, A.M. & Kelly, S. (1998). Prime-time advertisements:  Repetition priming from faces seen on subject recruitment posters. Memory and Cognition, 26, 502-515. PDF Link

Bright, J.E.H. & Burton, A.M. (1998). Ringing the changes: where abstraction occurs in implicit learning. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 10, 113-130. PDF Link

Burton, A.M., Kelly, S.W. & Bruce, V. (1998). Cross-domain repetition priming in person recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 515-529. PDF Link

Burton, A.M. & Vokey, J. (1998). The face space typicality paradox: Understanding the face-space metaphor. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 475-483. PDF Link

Bruce, V., Hancock, P.J.B. & Burton, A.M. (1998). Human face perception and identification. In H.Wechsler, P.J. Phillips, V. Bruce, F.F. Soulie & T.S. Huang. Face Recognition: From Theory to Applications. pp. 51-72. Berlin: Springer.

Burton, A.M. (1998) A model of human face recognition. In J. Grainger and A.M. Jacobs (Eds.) Localist Connectionist Approaches to Human Cognition. pp. 75-100. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.